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(adjusting the conditions of fluoride analysis. ( )Tj (closely follows the Nernst Equation:)Tj 0000056868 00000 n f H��Vkt�W~޽��Qq��8r! 12 0 0 12 439.7578 648.96 Tm 12 0 0 12 94 74.4 Tm 0.003 Tc -0.003 Tw 7.92 0 0 7.92 386.33 516.48 Tm (. (The operation of a fluoride)Tj (medium. 7.92 0 0 7.92 236.5137 640.56 Tm (the concentration of ions of choice using selectively sensitive electrod\ e membranes. 0 -1.16 TD (-)Tj 0.281 0.879 Td (The abov)Tj (+)Tj (membrane. -15 -1.16 Td x�̖�o�0����� ;������Z��К. (Table: Composition of TISAB)Tj 0000057066 00000 n In the second part of the experiment, the unknown amount of fluoride in aquafresh toothpaste isdetermined. 2.844 0 Td ( )Tj (2+)Tj ( )Tj ( )Tj (standard and sample )Tj ( )Tj (-)Tj -24.468 -1.14 Td /TT0 1 Tf (th)Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 478.9277 654.48 Tm TISAB also minimizes the influence )Tj ( )Tj (, is defined as)Tj 0000002559 00000 n (The optimum pH range for the fluoride electrode is at pH 5. -21.664 -1.16 Td (th)Tj 3 0 Td -15 -1.14 Td <0001>Tj ( )Tj 0.003 Tc -0.002 Tw 0.335 0 Td While they were eventually funded by a company (Procter and Gamble), the … 'D�C%��q'n�V"AB\�-�*+q)K�Y���D�p�CQ3 3����VX���0ƨeΞ'��5��̏��]{����~{��g?�7k��٨���H��+���+@6��=��l�� �щ9���A ��&'o�����p(Y���p*$��c ���r���wٵ�͟5�f���'�M�ˬ�? (= concentration of the i)Tj /TT0 1 Tf (-)Tj (-)Tj 12 0 0 12 483.4395 648.96 Tm (Sodium chloride)Tj (Some citrate ion is added to complex preferentially with metal ions such\ as iron and )Tj ( )Tj ( )Tj 9 0 Td (aluminum to ensure that the fluoride ion is displaced into the solution \ as \223free\224 fluoride)Tj (\) has been introduced precisely for )Tj <0001>Tj ( )Tj )Tj TISAB is used to \223swamp out\224 )Tj This poten)Tj 12 0 0 12 374.1113 524.64 Tm ( )Tj -7.709 -1.155 Td 0000004974 00000 n (1)Tj 0.505 0 Td T* (2+)Tj hޔX�n�H}�W���������,�x��L�` ��$m�e��"�$eE����O�SM��(��&DEdթ�:�x���������z��L��r"$s���B��q����]����9�J&[$�8�d��d*X�d.�-�$[^k��qk�^�E'�G����W�#+����7�4k��7��/�y�3���Y�T׺\�\զ���2��I�lq1e���߀j.��}��Wѱ��Ƃ€G-"G�\���Ί �"����(�TW�������[�o��)��. (. (membrane. )Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 435.2461 654.48 Tm /CS0 cs 0 0 0 scn ( )Tj /C2_0 1 Tf 0000000965 00000 n ( )Tj (crystal lanthanum fluoride )Tj 16 0 obj <> endobj 28 0 obj<]/Info 15 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/W[1 3 1]/Index[16 27]/DecodeParms<>/Size 43/Prev 104746/Type/XRef>>stream (tial is proportional to the activity of F)Tj ( )Tj ( )Tj 0.005 Tc -0.005 Tw 7.92 0 0 7.92 104.0039 640.56 Tm ( )Tj )Tj (, Cl)Tj /TT0 1 Tf 0 -1.16 TD 34.993 0 Td ( )Tj (2)Tj 10.4 0 Td <0001>Tj (. ( )Tj (fluoride content of \(1\) an unknown NaF solution, and \(2\) to)Tj 0.003 Tc -0.003 Tw 7.92 0 0 7.92 247.5898 516.48 Tm (+)Tj -14.876 -1.14 Td 7.92 0 0 7.92 140.666 226.8 Tm (b)Tj (+)Tj trailer <<51E38CE40994442EB980404A6DAE6B29>]>> startxref 0 %%EOF 42 0 obj <>stream 0000004851 00000 n 0000001320 00000 n 0000000736 00000 n What you'll need: 1 bottle of fluoride rinse 2 eggs 1 bottle of white vinegar 3 containers What to do: Pour four inches of fluoride rinse solution into one of the containers and then place an egg in the solution. ET 7.92 0 0 7.92 380.9473 612.96 Tm (-)Tj ( )Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 130.3008 509.52 Tm (ill be employed. x�b```e``6d`a`�Qg`@ f���Ɇڛ΁�[gr{500� �q ���ɬH�X�! (and anions like: F)Tj ( c)Tj 1.6 0 Td -35.107 -1.16 Td A concept )Tj )Tj z�K�k0�0R'����+ǙU7���\�!Ll�^�\�U�'W�����nn���R��ZA���Ƭ� ]y$�'�4DA�9a.r�ץ�)g~6�Gb%�����/�Z��P&��ё�"��Uh�0ϻqN28����ڻ�ǯ�H�T�Js�����,�ŻP���{1E|��o�K*t��6�M1W�p_Ū��I;b���X�͌�y���$X:�F�N9-w��9~�x�72ze����tPa*�� (i)Tj Analysis of Fluoride in Toothpaste The toothpaste sample should be prepared and analyzed at the same time the standards and your prepared unknown. 7.92 0 0 7.92 221.1758 640.56 Tm 23.031 0 Td (for standardization and unknowns. @|�W��?OW�:N7��� -��pS�5�z�,Y���V�KZ�MZѩ�E�J+GI%��:��]e%Ҽž�wZa�@��?�9|��8.��Il��Z&�W˪�A��%i�QH�)����~���XT��E��q�O�Y�Ȣ�e�v�Q���.0v}�C�N�|�?���i�>U���,n��5��s�q������w$n4ό��M���S�� c�K̖r�._��l�Ǝ���ٵ�ą��g�u�ٜ0�3��ɑ���r����n���hO.�4�O���p+�/p�&闌.�4���V���v!���X�~x������vn��Oc�� �ΤA���ꈮwWS\�ᴦc4 �).�|��°�4*��05l9�`2�dٮ��!���/g6�h3 �����O OJ)� endstream endobj 20 0 obj<>stream (is given in the Table below. (-)Tj (a)Tj (0.001 M)Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 459.75 654.48 Tm -0.156 -1.16 Td (=4.75\))Tj ( )Tj 12 0 0 12 285.6953 510.96 Tm This is first estimated form the calibtration graph and then calculated using the Nernstequation. 0 -1.14 TD ( )Tj <0002>Tj 24.188 0 Td (Cu)Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 265.8477 640.56 Tm (Total Ionic Strength Adjustment Buffer)Tj x�bbd```b``*�� ��D����Ad?�mDr�IF�y`�|�.? /TT2 1 Tf (selective electrodes \(ISE\) makes possible the determination of )Tj ( )Tj In this experiment, the fluoride content of (1) an unknown NaF solution, and (2) toothpaste will be measured by direct current potentiometry with a fluoride ion activity electrode … 12 0 Td 12 0 0 12 203.8379 635.04 Tm 0000001901 00000 n 12 0 0 12 90 744.72 Tm 12 0 0 12 132.5234 510.96 Tm /C2_0 1 Tf ( )Tj -15 -1.14 Td (In this experiment, instead of TISAB, a 0.1M KCl solution w)Tj 3 0 Td ( )Tj ( )Tj -0.296 -1.14 Td ( )Tj ��ŏ�}sj���sM��g�̷��L�9�f~����5�忠 ��������kV��Y��;�D-�F����x�P ��h��� ��F4E34G�W�D8��@+�����Z4b�mgql����|�H@GtBgtAWtCw$�z�%�B��2z#��" }����>����������~��DĬ`�p�z � s�����~�=��dsUWe�W5 ��Z|�Hߓ8� /C2_0 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 464.2617 648.96 Tm [(E)-1(x)1(peri)1(m)-2(ent)1(:)1( Ion)]TJ (-)Tj T* (i)Tj )Tj ( )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 12 0 0 12 392.5527 510.96 Tm ��u&�i��"�T �30n�` l�� endstream endobj 42 0 obj<>stream ��`2�Xi& �b&gu ��_ �>f endstream endobj 22 0 obj <> endobj 23 0 obj <> endobj 24 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 25 0 obj <> endobj 26 0 obj <> endobj 27 0 obj [/CalRGB<>] endobj 28 0 obj <> endobj 29 0 obj <>stream )Tj 12 0 0 12 243.1777 635.04 Tm (of )Tj -15 -1.16 Td T* 3 0 Td ( )Tj In this experiment, the )Tj (5.0 )Tj 0 -1.14 TD ( )Tj 12 0 0 12 90 676.56 Tm ( )Tj (when the same solution is used )Tj ( )Tj 12 0 0 12 205.5117 262.56 Tm ( )Tj 3 0 Td /TT0 1 Tf (concentrations may be deduced from mea)Tj )Tj 18.156 0 Td 12 0 0 12 93.5508 102 Tm ( )Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 90 79.92 Tm Fluoride Experiment This experiment simulates the protection power of fluoride. 12 0 0 12 383.6113 607.44 Tm BT 0 Tc 0 Tw 12 0 0 12 253.8125 510.96 Tm ( )Tj Let it sit for five minutes. 0000001176 00000 n 21.664 0 Td 0 Tc 0 Tw 12 0 0 12 511.2812 648.96 Tm 12 0 0 12 144.666 221.28 Tm -15 -1.14 Td 0000056819 00000 n ( )Tj (solutions)Tj 0000001046 00000 n (de complexes. (E = E\260 + \(0.059 volts/n\) log[ion] where n = ionic charge. (ions in contact with the )Tj ( )Tj 24.526 0 Td ( )Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 196.3184 240.48 Tm ( )Tj ( )Tj 21 0 obj <> endobj xref 21 22 0000000016 00000 n /GS0 gs (In practical operation, a high ionic strength medium is necessary so tha\ t fluoride ion )Tj 3 0 Td 0 -1.14 TD 0 -1.16 TD A typical composition )Tj ET (3)Tj /TT0 1 Tf ( = \(1/2\) )Tj (-)Tj 0 -1.16 TD (than 20 ions can be determ)Tj 0000070307 00000 n x�b```"&�Y� ��ea�hP�f���������A8p�+GG�GT�����?Hs17X�� ��.N� qE��#�`Y.��Y@��� �g endstream endobj 17 0 obj<> endobj 18 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 19 0 obj<>stream ( )Tj (, K)Tj (based on the potential which develops across a single)Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw 7.374 0 Td 3 0 Td %PDF-1.4 %���� 7.92 0 0 7.92 371.8887 523.2 Tm (ined by ISE, for example cations such as: Ag)Tj (Ionic strength \(approx.\))Tj endstream endobj 21 0 obj<>stream 3 0 Td -29.031 -1.16 Td (Acetic acid \(pK)Tj (surement of fluoride ion activities. The composition of TISAB\ is not critical )Tj /TT1 1 Tf 12 0 0 12 223.8398 635.04 Tm -15 -1.14 Td (ion. 3 0 Td 1.444 0 Td (-)Tj (, CN)Tj (, Ca)Tj In this experiment, the fluoride content of (1) an unknown NaF solution, and (2) toothpaste will be measured by direct current potentiometry with a fluoride ion activity electrode in a high ionic strength medium. ( )Tj 0 -1.14 TD So before the toothpaste researchers even got started on trying to make and test a toothpaste containing fluoride, they were building on a mountain of research on fluoride in water reducing tooth decay. ?�"���|x]�����`9Y �zƁ�a*c��=,d (2)Tj (a)Tj 9 0 Td ( )Tj 3 0 Td BT (the differences in ionic )Tj ( )Tj 5.374 0 Td 0000057283 00000 n #v3�n%Jy��8%2Z*�.��I��idnC|���� �x ��� ���e��f� Oߦ���p�v\a��#iK���R�H��\�-�x��a�`f� |Ĭ�M��. /C2_0 1 Tf Ionic strength, )Tj (1.0 M)Tj (strength between the )Tj (The development of ion)Tj (solutions containing 1:1 electrolyte, like NaCl, )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw ( )Tj -3 -1.14 Td (Procedure:)Tj -24.888 -1.14 Td 0000002457 00000 n ( )Tj -24.526 -1.14 Td ( )Tj 1. (, Na)Tj ( )Tj T* For example, )Tj 90 118.56 144 0.481 re (1.75 M)Tj 3 0 Td Ion Selective Electrode Determination Of Fluoride In Toothpaste Samples ISE Determination of Fluoride Content in Various Substances CHM 222 – A 4 / 20 / 2007 Introduction: The ion selective electrode used was made up of a silver / silver chloride reference electrode and a glass electrode. -25.213 -1.16 Td ( )Tj (, )Tj 7.92 0 0 7.92 90 107.52 Tm 0000050833 00000 n (Sodium citrate)Tj ( )Tj (i)Tj (kept constant. /TT0 1 Tf [(s)1(e)1(l)2(e)1(c)1(t)2(i)2(ve)1( de)1(t)2(e)1(r)1(m)-1(i)2(nat)2(i)2(on of)2( f)2(l)2(uor)1(i)2(de)]TJ (i)Tj /TT0 1 Tf 0 -1.16 TD 0 -1.14 TD (of polyvalent cation)Tj 0 -1.14 TD (pH)Tj (called TISAB \()Tj (othpaste will be measured by )Tj (z)Tj More )Tj (0.25 M)Tj (ion, z)Tj ( )Tj 3 0 Td 7.92 0 0 7.92 201.1738 640.56 Tm T* 7.92 0 0 7.92 382.4375 523.2 Tm Accurately weigh about 0.2 g of toothpaste into a 100 mL beaker. Add 10 mL of 1F KCl and about 40 mL of water to the beaker. ( )Tj ( )Tj 3 0 Td 0000036862 00000 n ( )Tj 3 0 Td 12 0 0 12 388.6602 524.64 Tm T* ( )Tj 12 0 0 12 268.5117 635.04 Tm (direct current potentiometry with a fluoride ion activity electrode in a\ high ionic strength )Tj 2. (This potential is measured against a convenient reference electrode and \ )Tj ( )Tj ( )Tj In practical operation, a high ionic strength medium is necessary so that fluoride ion (b)Tj (, S)Tj 0 -3.02 TD 12 0 0 12 199.8691 234.96 Tm (Sodium acetate)Tj "M����s�$%~ܝ�l�α���Az �) �%�����IꃧC� @`H B l�Xj�"@}űDeE��l2 �¬AH�u�|��ͬ�~ �s�"K�e�5l����O�'�xk�K��:�F��l:w/���K��cfscW��2˷Q�nL����M�M�acS�Lj�'�vJ�a�c��q~������K6(5�Q���q�?s� ."����(ڽ*�Z��U]���;���u�l�����x5H7�~qA���ْ��'��7�ҵ$����@�P�J�C���%]z�QJ?Z�^W��2��]��8ƺ��_U{�.���T=���HV�oY?�|���Q.�v? ( )Tj (e equation is valid for dilute solutions and for solutions whose ionic s\ trength is )Tj 0.003 Tc -0.001 Tw 13.92 0 0 13.92 90 706.8 Tm 0000002291 00000 n ( )Tj (fluori)Tj What You’ll Need: 1 Bottle of Fluoride Rinse Solution 2 Eggs 1 Bottle of White Vinegar 3 Containers

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