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Some fellow Allied generals thought Clark had failed to trap the German 10th Army. Meanwhile, at Valmontone, US 1st Armored Division engaged German Herman Göring Division. Forced to reorient his forces, Truscott was not able to attack towards Rome until May 29. As a result, an exposed salient was created in the lines. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sought to restart the Allied advance and proposed landing troops behind the German positions. The battle took place between January 22nd, 1944 and June 5th, 1944. ww2dbaseBy mid-May 1944, Allied strength at the Anzio beachhead reached 150,000 men (two British divisions and five US divisions). Anzio 22 January-24 May 1944 ... Weary from over twenty-four hours of continuous battle and suffering from an arm wound, Olson manned his gun alone, meeting the full force of a 200-man enemy dawn assault supported by mortars and machine guns. It was thought that if the Germans responded to the landings it would sufficiently weaken the Gustav Line to permit a breakthrough. Germans defeated American troops in the Battle of Cisterna near Anzio, Italy. ww2dbaseOn the German side, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring reacted quickly. While Alexander selected Buffalo, Clark was adamant that US forces be the first to enter Rome and lobbied for Turtle. German Field Marshal Albert Kesselring ordered a counterattack against the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy. In the afternoon of 3 Feb, the German offensive began with probing attacks, followed by a full attack at 2300 hours. With the situation at a stalemate, Truscott and Mackensen suspended offensive operations until spring. Later in the same morning, he ordered General Eberhard von Mackensen of German 14th Army and General Heinrich von Vietinghoff of German 10th Army to dispatch their reserves to reinforce the Anzio region. Americans stopped a German counter attack at Anzio, Italy. Yet Anzio was to turn into one of the bloodiest battles fought in Western Europe by the Allies in World War Two. The third major German offensive was launched at Anzio, Italy, which would again fail to dislodge the Allies. In his headquarters 50 miles to the north in Rome, Albert Kesselring studied dispatches and reports from Anzio that evening and noted how fast the battle was consuming arms and assault units. Nearby, the Italian motor torpedo boat base at Terracina was evacuated. Mark Clark and the US 5th Army entered Rome, Italy unopposed; Clark immediately held a press conference on the steps of the Town Hall on the Capitoline Hill. US 1st Armored Division engaged German defensive positions of the Caesar C Line south of Rome, Italy. Battle of Anzio 22 Jan 1944 - 4 Jun 1944 Contributor: C. Peter Chen The Allied forces landed in the southern portions of mainland Italy in Sep 1943, and the subsequent progress had been slow, largely due to a fairly well-executed delay action campaign conducted by … That evening, Truscott was stunned to receive orders from Clark calling for him to turn his attack ninety degrees towards Rome. Lava's technical capabilities. On 30 May, after seven German divisions successfully withdraw along Route 6 in Italy, Kesselring allowed his troops in the Velletri gap to slowly fall back from this area. Across the lines, Lucas was reinforced by the US 45th Infantry Division and US 1st Armored Division. Harold Alexander visited the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy and was dissatisfied with the commanding officer Major General John Lucas. Kennedy Hickman is a historian, museum director, and curator who specializes in military and naval history. On February 3, the Germans attacked the Allied lines with a focus on the Via Anziate salient. Major General John Lucas was selected as the commander of what was to be named Operation Shingle. In an effort to break the stalemate, Churchill proposed Operation Shingle which called for landings behind the Gustav Line at Anzio (Map). Thank you. battle of anzio photographs Il VI corpo d’armata, agli ordini del generale Lucas , era sbarcato sulla costa di Anzio alle ore due antimeridiane del giorno 22 gennaio del 1944 mentre la 3′ divisione americana e la 1′ divisione britannica avevano preso terra rispettivamente a sud e a nord della cittadina. Four Italian motor torpedo boats attacked the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy before dawn, causing no damage and losing two boats. Anzio and Nettuno are also notable as sites of an Allied forces landing and the ensuing Battle of Anzio during World War II. ww2dbaseThe Allied forces landed in the southern portions of mainland Italy in Sep 1943, and the subsequent progress had been slow, largely due to a fairly well-executed delay action campaign conducted by the Germans, anchored on several prepared defensive lines. Lucas should of been more aggresive but at the same time didnt have a large enough force. On the same day, Harold Alexander inserted Lucian Truscott and Vyvyan Evelegh under Major General John Lucas in an attempt to alleviate Lucas' poor performance at Anzio. Though the campaign ultimately proved successful, Operation Shingle has been criticized for being poorly planned and executed. Two days later, US troops marched into the Italian capital. While the British pinned Mackensen's men at Via Anziate, American forces finally took Cisterna on May 25. Lucas felt that it was an extremely risky undertaking; he feared that the force assigned to him was not large enough, and thought that the invasion "has a strong odor of Gallipoli". At the end of the day on 25 May, Clark ordered Truscott to turn US 1st Armored Division north toward Rome, leaving only US 3rd Infantry Division and supporting units to continue the attack on Valmontone; Clark would not inform Alexander of this maneuver until the following morning. Elsewhere, the British gained ground up the Via Anziate but failed to take the town. Also on this day, after seven German divisions successfully withdraw along Route 6 in Italy, Albert Kesselring allowed his troops in the Velletri gap to slowly fall back. If they did not respond, the Shingle troops would be in place to directly threaten Rome. An expeditionary force commanded by U.S. Major General John P. Lucas secured a beachhead near Anzio and Nettuno on Italys west coast, but his divisions were quickly contained by German Field Marshall Albert Kesselring. British troops captured Frosinone, Italy. The Germans launched Operation Fischfang, throwing 7 divisions against the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy. Four days later, he gave the order to strike at the earliest possible moment. Then he wanted to attack Rome. Italian motor torpedo boats attacked the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy before dawn, causing no damage. The first, Operation Buffalo, called for an attack to cut Route 6 at Valmontone to aid in trapping the German Tenth Army, while the other, Operation Turtle, was for an advance through Campoleone and Albano towards Rome. Three US and two British divisions launched a new assault out of the Anzio, Italy beachhead at dawn, inflicting heavy casualties on German formations but also suffering similarly. Out at sea, an Italian motor torpedo boat attack sank one cargo ship; one Italian boat was sunk in the attack. Truscott had doubts about this order, as he believed that if given more time he could have taken Valmontone and inflict very heavy casualties on the defending Germans, but he would obey his new orders. Under pressure from Berlin, Kesselring and Mackensen ordered another attack on February 29. Despite the misgivings of the senior commanders, Operation Shingle moved forward on January 22, 1944, with Major General Ronald Penney's British 1st Infantry Division landing north of Anzio, Colonel William O. Darby's 6615th Ranger Force attacking the port, and Major General Lucian K. Truscott's US 3rd Infantry Division landing south of the town. The infamous battle of Anzio lasted from January 22, 1944 to May 29, 1944. Three Italian motor torpedo boats attacked the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy before dawn, causing no damage and suffering no losses. ww2dbaseOperation Shingle commenced on 22 Jan 1944, landing 36,000 men and 3,200 vehicles by the end of the day. All visitor submitted comments are opinions of those making the submissions and do not reflect views of WW2DB. This bulge would soon become the target of repeated German assaults (Map). The plan called for Clark's US Fifth Army to attack along the Gustav Line to draw enemy forces south while Lucas' VI Corps landed at Anzio and drove northeast into the Alban Hills to threaten the German rear. Three Italian motor torpedo boats attacked the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy, damaging USS PC-545 and USS Pioneer before dawn. The Allied advance up the ‘soft underbelly’ of Europe had … On the other side of the lines, German strength rose to 71,500 men. In the fighting that resulted, the attack on Cisterna was repulsed, with the Rangers taking heavy losses. While Lucas should have been more aggressive, his force was too small to achieve the objectives it was assigned. Also, he received control of three additional divisions in Italy and three from elsewhere in Europe from OKW (German High Command). In February 1944 American soldiers (the U.S. Fifth Army) were surrounded by Germans in the caves of Pozzoli for a week, suffering heavy casualties. During this time, Kesselring constructed the Caesar C defensive line between the beachhead and Rome. Frustrated with Lucas' performance, Clark replaced him with Truscott on February 22. Opposition was minimal on the first day, and Allied casualties were low; the Allies suffered 13 killed and 97 wounded, while 200 Germans were captured. British fusilier Frank Jefferson used a PIAT anti-tank launcher to destroy a German Panzer IV tank along the Gustav Line in Italy, which led to his unit repulsing a German counterattack which was spearheaded by the tank. Please consider supporting us on Patreon. Striking near Cisterna, this effort was repulsed by the Allies with around 2,500 German casualties. The battle would be the fighting that resulted after the Allies conducted an amphibious landing in the area of Anzio known as Operation Shingle. Allied forces overran the German Caesar C Line south of Rome, Italy; Adolf Hitler ordered Albert Kesselring that the Italian capital would be abandoned. He would later be awarded the Victoria Cross for this action. Two Italian motor torpedo boats attacked the Allied beachhead at Anzio, Italy before dawn, causing no damage and losing one boat. HTML tags are not allowed. 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