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Cattle mutilation (also known as bovine excision[1] and unexplained livestock death[2]) is the killing and mutilation of cattle under unusual, usually bloodless, and anomalous circumstances. The cow plunged its horn into her leg, which resulted in Amelia spending a week in hospital. When Rommel's final report was released to the public...Lauber answered an inquiry by investigator Tommy Bland: "I find it difficult to understand how Rommel could make a statement such as this, without ever having personally witnessed a [real] muitilation firsthand". YORKTON, SASK. This article does not address tearing due to bloating. We estimate the total excess COVID-19 cases and deaths associated with proximity to livestock plants to be 236,000 to 310,000 (6 to 8% of all US cases) and 4,300 to 5,200 (3 to 4% of all US deaths), respectively, as of July 21, 2020, with the vast majority likely related to community spread outside these plants. Increased urbanization puts livestock farms closer than ever to high-ways and population centers, heightening the risk of accidents and resulting liabilities. The overall IV results in Table 3 show the relationship between livestock facilities and COVID-19 case and death rates to be even stronger for each outcome, except the within-state death rate, which is of comparable magnitude but less precisely estimated. [14], In the summer of 2019, five bulls were mutilated at the Silvies Valley Ranch in Oregon. Livestock deaths . Consequently, it is important to understand law regarding liabilities for damages caused by loose livestock. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals, such as buffalo, oxen, llamas, or camels, may predominate in the agriculture of other areas. We collected data on whether a poultry plant had been granted a waiver from the USDA permitting production-line processing speeds of 175 birds per minute, up from the statutory limit of 140. Typically the victims of such attacks are cats, dogs, and other family pets,[30] and the actions of humans are usually limited to acts of cruelty such as striking, burning, or beating animals. Workers’ socioeconomic status and labor practices may also contribute to infection and transmission. County-level mobility data were made accessible to COVID-19 researchers by Google (83). 51 years ago . In addition, through consolidation over the decades, the meatpacking industry has potentially increased its monopsonistic power over labor markets, which has been linked to greater work hazards (58⇓–60). The FBI has made no comment on if there is an investigation or not on this particular event but the Silvies Valley Ranch offered a $25,000 reward for information on the topic.[15]. Small and medium-sized plants were generally not found to have significant relationships with local COVID-19 transmission, suggesting that the scale of production is an important variable for industry leaders and policymakers to consider. In 1974, a few months after the first spate of alleged mutilations in the US, multiple farmers in Nebraska claimed to witness UFOs on the nights their cattle were harmed. Here, we present results of additional statistical methods used to explore the relationship between livestock plants and COVID-19 cases and deaths in the cross-section. In the famous "Snippy" case, there was an absolute absence of tracks in a 100 ft (30 m) radius of the carcass (even the horse's own tracks disappeared within 100 ft (30 m) of the body.) In September 1975, a forestry service employee in Blaine County, Idaho, reported seeing a group of people in black hooded robes. And while shutdown counties have higher cumulative COVID-19 caseloads on average, this is likely because closures occurred too late to suppress community spread outside of these plants. Correspondingly, there is a risk that incorporating these counties into our analysis may introduce bias into our livestock-plant estimates. S1. The B.C. In the second stage, we regressed COVID-19 incidence on this predicted value of livestock plants as well as the other covariates in the primary specification. The flood wreaked havoc on Devillier’s ranch, killing at least 60 cattle (along with several horses) that represent 20 percent of his herd. This degree of concentration stands in contrast to the European Union (EU), for example, where the top 15 meat companies represent 28% of EU meat production (28). 1 does not account for county-level differences in terms of density and demographics. As seen in the map in Fig. Meanwhile, there is a lesser and imprecise relationship with retail and recreation activities, which may contribute to viral spread. FBI records did not record the percentage of mutilated animals that fell into this category. It is also highly concentrated: The largest four companies in beef, pork, and poultry processing capture 55 to 85% of their respective markets (22⇓⇓⇓⇓–27). Estimates are relative to the baseline trend across all counties. 1 plots average COVID-19 case and death rates over time by whether there is a large livestock facility in a given county relative to rates in counties at varying distances from a plant. The death count in the mammal-attack category averages about 73 per year, including cattle-related mortalities. Using county-level data as of July 21, 2020, we test the relationship between one such type of essential activity, livestock processing, and the local incidence of COVID-19 cases. The freight index is from the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework (78) using the variable AADTT12, the annual average daily truck traffic in 2012, which we sum across all listed highways in a given county. According to Tom Adams' self-published book, "The Choppers and the Choppers", published in 1992, by 1990 upwards of 350 helicopter reports in and around mutilation sites had been documented by Adams. Similar incidents were reported in the area in 1978. We have quantified a range of clinical factors associated with COVID-19-related death in … Our results indicate a strong positive relationship between livestock-processing plants and local community transmission of COVID-19, suggesting that these plants may act as transmission vectors into the surrounding population and accelerate the spread of the virus beyond what would be predicted solely by population risk characteristics. Livestock handlers are involved in This helps argue against purely static confounders, such as highway connectedness or fraction of the population that is Hispanic. Livestock deaths from foot-and-mouth disease rise to 2,013. Coefficients are firm fixed-effect coefficients plotted from SI Appendix, Table S6. We note that the 259 counties in our sample with livestock plants differ in important ways from those without plants. 0749: Horses - This year 5. Note that this only includes agricultural operations, and not livestock processing. [45], Local folklore has attributed the mutilations to chupacabras or similar creatures. That is, the figure we have calculated could, in fact, be more complete than the Kansas figure in capturing the spread resulting from livestock plants. Each day, about 500 agricultural workers suffer lost-time injuries, 25 whichresult permanentimpairment. We then examined how the presence of livestock plants varied with time spent working and engaging in shopping and recreation. Ensuring both public health and robust essential supply chains may require an increase in meatpacking oversight and potentially a shift toward more decentralized, smaller-scale meat production. We limited the analysis to the continental United States. No blood was at the scene, according to Harry, and a strong medicinal odor was in the air. We also find that smaller, decentralized facilities do not appear to contribute to transmission and that plants that received permission from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to increase their production-line speeds saw more county-wide cases. There is a clear positive relationship between COVID-19 cases and deaths in relation to livestock facilities, and the county-level mean case rate varies directly with a county’s proximity to a neighboring county with a livestock facility. World 4h ago Indian farmers start hunger strike to pressure Modi on reforms ... Indian farmers vow to carry on protests despite cold, deaths. Graphs match COVID-19 pretrends of control group (green lines) to counties with plant shutdowns (red lines) based on percent growth in cases (weekly log difference) in the 2 wk prior to shutdown. [26][36] Media reports of the time reported his investigation was dropped when it was determined cattle deaths were not a prelude to a co-ordinated campaign against elected officials by cult members. To validate and contextualize our findings, we first estimated the total excess cases and deaths related to livestock plants implied by our results. Fig. However, the speed with which growth rates rose and fell in shutdown counties suggests that some closure-related mechanism is likely at play. The action of carrion feeding insects such as. Dairy producers in New Mexico and Texas take a huge hit after Winter Storm Goliath wiped out more than 30,000 dairy cows. It was then expanded in September 2018 to allow all poultry plants the opportunity to apply for these waivers. [6], On September 9, 1967, Agnes King and her son Harry found the dead body of their three-year-old horse, Lady. Livestock deaths . [17], The absence of tracks or footprints around the site of the mutilated carcass is often considered a hallmark of cattle mutilation. National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Counties with plants have higher population density, a lower proportion of elderly people, higher proportions of Black and Hispanic people, and larger household sizes. However, none of these theories explain why the US government would not simply contact ranchers during regular business hours and acquire or purchase these animals for testing. 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