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The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site / k ə ˈ h oʊ k i ə / is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (which existed c. 1050–1350 CE) directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri.This historic park lies in south-western Illinois between East St. Louis and Collinsville. Much of the surrounding soil has been removed for use in levee construction, making the mounds appear taller than they are. This latest National Register of Historic Places Travel itinerary highlights 11 mound sites, which include some of the best-preserved examples in Mississippi. The Batesville Mounds, a designated Mississippi Landmark and a destination on the Mississippi Mound Trail, has been described as “one of the most important prehistoric ceremonial sites in Mississippi.” The Batesville Mounds were believed to be inhabited by the Early to Middle Woodland Indians between 500 BCE and 100 CE. On the 18th of May 1838, a party of literary and scientific gentlemen from Natchez, Mississippi, examined two square mounds three and a half miles below the city, between the bluff and the river, about a mile from the river and one-eighth of a mile from the bluff, rising from 11 to 16 feet above the level upon which they are based. Mississippi Mound Builders were not limited to just the Mississippi River Valley. These three sites, two single mounds and one group of three mounds, prove beyond a doubt that at least some Middle Archaic peoples in Mississippi were building mounds at this early time period. The Pharr Mounds site, which consists of eight burial mounds, was constructed sometime between 1 AD and 200 AD, and is one of the largest Middle Woodland ceremonial sites in the southeastern United States. This Vaughan mound dates to 4600–3800 B.C. Located along US Highway 61 in the central Mississippi Delta, Mound Bayou was at one time the nation’s largest and most self-sufficient African American town. That is not to say that Cahokia ruled these areas, or even had direct hands-on influence in their construction. The Eight, relatively large Middle Woodland Period mounds were scattered across 90 acres of northern Mississippi. The Mississippian culture may have originated and, indeed, reached its apex at Cahokia Mounds. The Owl Creek Mounds Archaeological Site is a Mississippian Mound complex located in the Tombigbee National Forest just three miles off the Natchez Trace Parkway. The Bynum Mounds are prehistoric Indian mounds preserved along the Natchez Trace Parkway south of Tupelo, Mississippi. When the mounds were excavated in 1966, internal features, such as fire pits and clay platforms, were recovered. Mounds built of earth are the most prominent remains left on the landscape by these native peoples. 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