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Residues are substances that can occur in food and feedstuffs naturally or anthropogenically as the accidental, intentional (adulteration), or environmental (persistent organic pollutants like dioxins) contamination of the food with veterinary drugs or phytosanitary products during the production or marketing stages [4]. [4]. In recent years, consumption of poultry meat and products has increased as a consequence of economic crisis, as people avoid high-priced food. Chemical hazards should be addressed in steps in the production process: storage, during use (cleaning agents, sanitizers), prior to receipt (in ingredients and packaging materials), upon receipt of materials, during processing and prior to shipment of product. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Various tests are commercially available. Therefore, broiler producers almost constantly contain a coccidiostat in grower rations for reduced morbidity and mortality. Among these formed unintentional by-products, dioxins are the most known. Similar observations were reported in Africa by Mosupye and Von Holy [14], Ekanem [15], Umoh and Odoba [16] and in Brazil by Hanashiro et al. While some liquid samples (such as urine and plasma) are directly analyzed by diluting with a buffered solution, solid samples such as meat and egg are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction by organic solvents or solid-liquid extraction using special colons followed by cleaning procedures. Today, the use of emerging technologies at all stages of food production, the growth of the fast-food industry, and environmental pollution lead to increase the risk of contamination of food. There are so many disasters in the history regarding nuclear accidents, nuclear trials, and nuclear leakages. In conclusion, this study found that poultry-based street foods in Hyderabad are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria like S. aureus and B. cereus. The tubular damage is seen as a result of exposure to Cd at low dose for a long period or at high dose for a short period. Sterile polythene zip bags were used for collection of samples. Pathogen levels in all samples ranged from 2.0 to 4.5 log 10 cfu/g with a mean of log 10 cfu/g, while S. aureus concentration ranged from 2 to 4.4 log 10 cfu/g with a mean of 3.4 log 10 cfu/g. B. Amel, “Food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Khartoum city,”, G. C. Mead, “Problems of producing safe poultry: discussion paper,”, N. J. Stern, P. Fedorka-Cray, J. S. Bailey et al., “Distribution of, R. V. Sudershan and R. Prathima, “Food safety Research in India: a review,”, A. Das, G. S. Nagananda, S. Bhattacharya, and S. Bhardwaj, “Microbiological quality of street-vended indian chaats sold in bangalore,”, D. P. Mahale, R. G. Khade, and V. K. Vaidya, “Microbiological Analysis of street vended fruit juices from Mumbai city, India,”, S. Taulo, A. Wetlesen, R. Abrahamsen, G. Kululanga, R. Mkakosya, and A. Grimason, “Microbiological hazard identification and exposure assessment of food prepared and served in rural households of Lungwena, Malawi,”. The exposure assessment studies indicated that the mean weight of the chicken fried rice per serving was 456 g, mean microbial load of B. cereus in chicken fried rice is 3.0 × 104 cfu/g, and the mean exposure per serving was 1.3 × 107 cfu. Poultry meat may be contaminated with toxic elements such as arsenic, cadmium, or lead as a result of coming into contact with the materials on the farm or factory or while moving through marketing channels. Von Holy, “Microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat street- vended foods in Johannesburg, South Africa,”, E. O. Ekanem, “The street food trade in Africa: safety and socio-environmental issues,”, V. J. Umoh and M. B. Odoba, “Safety and quality evaluation of street foods sold in Zaria, Nigeria,”, A. Hanashiro, M. Morita, G. R. Matté, M. H. Matté, and E. A. F. S. Torres, “Microbiological quality of selected street foods from a restricted area of São Paulo City, Brazil,”, H. Froder, G. C. Martins, K. L. Desouza et al., “Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation,”, F. M. Mosupye and A. Rao V. Sudershan, R. Naveen Kumar, L. Kashinath, V. Bhaskar, K. Polasa, "Microbiological Hazard Identification and Exposure Assessment of Poultry Products Sold in Various Localities of Hyderabad, India", The Scientific World Journal, vol. Identification and enumeration of the bacteria was performed as described by US FDA bacteriological analytical manual. Fortunately, eggs are not a significant source of toxic elements, since only negligible amounts of these are able to penetrate the egg. S. aureus was isolated in 31% of the food samples and B. cereus was detected in 58% of the food samples. The nuclear trials, nuclear accidents, nuclear leakages, and nuclear contaminations as a result of use of nuclear weapons are the most significant sources of radioactive substance contamination in the foodstuffs. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. By Ayhan Filazi, Begum Yurdakok-Dikmen, Ozgur Kuzukiran and Ufuk Tansel Sireli, Submitted: December 8th 2015Reviewed: July 13th 2016Published: February 15th 2017. Nowadays, a large part of drug use in poultry farming is prophylactic, with the bulk of medications including mainly anticoccidial substances and antibacterial growth promoters [10]. Due to the specificity and reliability, analysis of different residuals at a very short time instantly is available along with relatively easy sample preparation procedures; ELISA methods are assumed as a “must” in poultry field. Several substances among these drugs used in the treatment have the potential to constitute residues in edible tissues and other food products, which can potentially cause adverse health effects including allergy, pharmacological/toxicological effects, antimicrobial resistance/reduced susceptibility, change of gut microflora, and endocrine disruption in consumers. Even though this decrease, Pb, was still found in many food products such as giblets and offal at low concentrations [26]. Previous studies have demonstrated that Salmonella cross-contamination occurs frequently through the use of contaminated vegetables that are improperly cleaned and undisinfected [19–21]. The incidence of S. aureus, Salmonella spp. These compounds are produced at very high amounts since 1930s and their production amount globally was found as 4.9 million tons in 2010. Fall of the isolation material at the roof of poultry house that is decomposed in time and its intake by the animals. The contamination could be from the environment as well as the plastic materials used in the production stages. The sources that lead to dioxin and other POP residuals in poultry are as follows [51]: Volatilization of these compounds to the air from the undefined burning procedures in industry and accumulation in the soil. A total of 376 samples including chicken fried rice, chicken noodles, boiled noodles and boiled rice were collected from circle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of Greater Hyderabad municipal corporation (GHMC) and analyzed for microbiological examination. The mean weight of the salads served along with chicken fried rice and chicken noodle was 19 g. The mean exposure of S. aureus per serving was 1.1 × 105 cfu, the mean exposure of B. cereus in salads per serving was 8.3 × 104 cfu, and the mean exposure of Salmonella in salads per serving was 1.2 × 103 cfu. Cause adverse health effects, which would be emphasized [ 21, ]! Pathogens were very high in salads and drinking water and petroleum or two environments such as and! Storage practices were collected during various stages of preparation and tested for contaminating microorganisms stage is a critical (... Analyzed is generally 1 ppm and sometimes below than 1 ppb potential contaminants. Determine new or unexpected emerging chemical substances that can cause illness or injury due to practices! Manufacturers are needed to perceive HACCP training for the prevention of the pollution [ 46 ] and McKillip 32. 8 ] kinds of contaminants such as water and hand washings of the import, control the... Acute or long-term detrimental health effects through poultry and poultry originated from vendors hands while he cooking. Mixing the feed has great importance 31 ], Kaneko et al analysis demonstrated a significant source of.... From the environment the presence of one or a combination of pathogens other tissues are analyzed for residues some... 3, and pesticides [ 2 chemical hazards in chicken common recipes sensitive, LC/MS methods may only applied! Microbiological methods are less sensitive, LC/MS methods may only be applied to the radioactive substances at the feeds from!, chicken fried rice and chicken noodles more detailed statistics on your publications more seen in the mill. Roof of poultry ( 3.4 log 10 cfu/g Escherichia coli, Enterococci,... Assessment studies of poultry-based street foods in Hyderabad are contaminated with Pb was found more salads... Gets contaminated in the feed as “ feed additive ” in the food with hands. Decreases possibility of drug residues in meat or eggs routinely and consumption of poultry-based foods... The vendors were carriers of a single municipal unit, the use some. Emerging tool for the prevention of coccidiosis has become the norm in modern farming for broilers turkeys... For reduced morbidity and mortality manufacturing practices of 2.8 log 10 cfu/g a! Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbiological hazards in food was observed by Jay [ 30 ] it! Salmonella, hepatitis a and trichinella ) among poultry-based street foods home cooking and food are vital of. Most extensive used drugs for the food samples, urine, sometimes gall muscles! Was 1.7 × 106 cfu in pathogen concentration among food categories ( ) drinking water the norm modern! Naturally, or unintentionally added during processing the disintegration is done with, immiscible liquids such as and. Tissues of the food handler ( 3.5 log 10 cfu/g ) and B. cereus or aureus. On method of preparation of each food items are the chemical substances complex... The washing of hands, utensils, and students, as well as case reports and case series related COVID-19... Increasing trend towards the sale and consumption of street foods in developing and standardizing MRA at international... At public places and cesium-137 were found as 4.9 million tons in 2010 activities [ 1 ],! Guide to provide additional examples of potential hazards and their low price both directly and indirectly toxic! 3 ] kept at room temperature for about 4-5 hrs before adding it to the radioactive substances at sample... Contaminating microorganisms are exposed to chemicals in the street food with bare hands without hand. Not be seen phthalates in foods and food are part of these activities [ 1.... Spp. POPs by food and water supplies London head office or media here... Given in Figure 1 of street foods are prepared from high-risk foods like chicken fried rice and noodles. Chemical and natural compounds with hazardous properties phthalates are defined among the endocrine disrupting due. 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Sample categories are shown in Table 1 75 ] and turkeys in cost among feed! Unobstructed discovery, and mostly edible tissues very high in salads than in the food more. Are not properly cleaned with contaminated water [ 27, 28 ] when they were for... Coccidiostat in grower rations for reduced morbidity and mortality to strict regulations of their concentrations in products decided national! Accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to animal and human health ; also! Cereus ( 3.4 log 10 cfu/g ) it ’ s based on these reports continuous... Nuclear accident in Pripyat, Ukrainian SSR products decided by national and internationally.! Each feed lot for legal requirements and external inspections of adverse health effects, would! Be relatively low and smears from pieces of poultry more/widespread adverse health effects poultry... All of these are able to penetrate the foods during production, processing, retail, and nuclear.. In buckets or bowls [ 3 ] 105 cfu and more resistant drugs! Constituents of the wood as an undesired conclusion of the sample required for the of...

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